Fermented Beverage Production

Author: John Piggott Andrew G. H. Lea
Publisher: Springer
Category: Technology: General Issues, Food & Beverage Technology
Book Format: Paperback

Fermented Beverage Production, Second Edition is an essential resource for any company producing or selling fermented alcoholic beverages. In addition it would be of value to anyone who needs a contemporary introduction to the science and technology of alcoholic beverages. This authoritative volume provides an up-to-date, practical overview of fermented beverage production, focusing on concepts and processes pertinent to all fermented alcoholic beverages, as well as those specific to a variety of individual beverages. The second edition features three new chapters on sparkling wines, rums, and Latin American beverages such as tequila, as well as thorough updating of information on new technologies and current scientific references.

Table Of Contents
1 Production of Fermentable Extracts from Cereals and Fruits.- Structure of Cereals.- Grain Development.- The Cereal Endosperm.- Cereal Storage Polymers.- Starch.- Amylose.- Amylopectins.- Starch Granules.- Starch Lipids.- Storage Proteins.- Cereal Lipids.- Cereal Cell Walls.- Basic Structure.- Glucans and Celluloses.- Hemicelluloses.- MALTING.- Outline of Barley Malting.- Changes in Barley Cell-Wall Components During Malting.- Changes in Endosperm Proteins.- Changes in Starch.- Depolymerization Activities During Mashing.- The Biochemistry of Mashing.- Depolymerization of Starch Polymers.- Cell-Wall Degradation.- Protein and Nucleic Acid Solubilization and Breakdown.- Lipid Extraction During Mashing.- Continued Activities During Distillery Fermentation.- Degradation of Branched Dextrins.- Formation of Ethyl Carbamate.- Multiple Parallel Fermentation.- Fruits as Raw Materials.- Fruit Juices and Their Composition.- Fruit Pulping.- Implications of Processing Certain Fruits.- REFERENCES.- 2 Alcoholic Beverage Fermentations.- YEAST.- PHYSIOLOGY OF YEAST GROWTH.- Nutritional Requirements.- Carbohydrate Utilization.- Uptake of Glucose.- Glucose and the Uptake of Maltose.- Glucose and the Uptake of Sucrose.- Utilization of Nitrogen Sources.- Ethanol Fermentation.- PRODUCTION OF FLAVOR COMPOUNDS.- Higher Alcohols.- Organic Acids.- Esters.- Carbonyl Compounds.- Malo-lactic Fermentation.- Sulphur Compounds.- REFERENCES.- 3 Beers: Recent Technological Innovations in Brewing.- THE TRADITIONAL BREWING PROCESS.- Raw Materials.- Wort Production.- Wort Fermentation and Maturation.- NEW TECHNOLOGICAL EVOLUTIONS.- Raw Materials.- Wort Production.- Fermentation and Maturation.- NEW PRODUCTS: LOW ALCOHOL BEER, ALCOHOL-FREE BEER, AND ICE BEER.- Low-Alcohol Beer and Alcohol-Free Beer.- Physical Removal of Ethanol.- Adaptation of the Traditional Process.- Ice Beer.- CONCLUSION.- REFERENCES.- 4 Cidermaking.- HISTORY AND DEFINITION.- RAW MATERIALS.- Cider Apples.- Milling and Pressing.- Juice Additions.- FERMENTATION.- Yeast Selection.- Malo-lactic Fermentation.- Sulfite Binding.- Cider Color.- Cider Flavor.- POST-FERMENTATION OPERATIONS.- Racking and Storage.- Storage Disorders.- Flavor Disorders.- CONCLUSION.- REFERENCES.- 5 White Wines.- WINE STYLES AND GRAPE VARIETIES.- Dry, White, Floral and Fruity Wines.- Medium-Dry, White, Floral and Fruity Wines.- Dry, White, Full-Bodied Wines.- Sweet, White Table Wines.- IMPROVED PLANTING MATERIAL.- THE VINEYARD AND HARVEST.- The Vineyard.- Harvest.- PREFERMENTATION TREATMENTS.- YEAST AND FERMENTATION CONTROL.- POSTFERMENTATION OPERATIONS.- REFERENCES.- 6 Red Wines.- STYLES OF RED TABLE WINES.- GRAPE MATURITY AND HARVESTING.- PREFERMENTATION OPTIONS.- JUICE, SKIN AND SEED CONTACTING.- Maceration Prior to Fermentation.- Conventional Maceration.- Maceration After the Fermentation.- Carbonic Maceration.- Color and Component Extraction During Conventional Maceration.- The Role of Copigmentation.- The Rates of Component Extraction.- Extraction From Seeds.- The Use of Temperature and Contacting Time To Enhance Extraction.- The Choice of Time to Press.- THE ETHANOL FERMENTATION.- Must Preparation.- Yeast Inoculation.- Fermentation Temperature.- Concurrent Malo-Lactic Fermentation.- Prediction of Fermentation Behavior.- Fermentation Problems.- Heat Evolution.- Gas Evolution.- MALO-LACTIC FERMENTATION.- Malo-Lactic Bacteria.- Bacterial Nutrition.- Immobilized Bacteria.- POST-FERMENTATION HANDLING OF WINES.- AGING.- Aging Reactions.- Cooperage Considerations.- Microbial Control During Aging.- Evaporative Losses.- PREPARATION FOR BOTTLING.- REFERENCES.- 7 Sparkling Wines.- BASE WINES.- CARBONATION.- Levels and Terms.- Quantification of Carbonation.- Methods of Carbonation.- SECONDARY FERMENTATION BY YEAST.- Selection of Yeast and Conditioning.- Fermentation Temperature.- Culturing Techniques.- Inoculum Size.- Agglomerating Ability.- Enclosed or Encapsulated Yeast.- The Sugar Source for the Carbonating Fermentation.- The Vessel Used for the Carbonating Fermentation.- YEAST LEES AGING.- Overview of Lees Aging Reactions.- Non-Enzymic Effects on Composition of the Wine with Lees Contact.- Excretion of Amino Acids.- Autolysis and Enzymatic Activity.- METHOD OF CLARIFICATION.- No Clarification.- Riddling and Disgorging.- Filtration.- THE FINAL PACKAGE.- SWEETENING.- AGING OF SPARKLING WINES IN THE ABSENCE OF YEAST-EFFECT OF HEAT AND LIGHT.- General Sensory Effects of Heat.- Heat and the Formation of Ethyl Carbamate.- Heat and Maillard Reaction Products.- Heat and Changes in Ester Composition.- Heat and Oxidation.- Heat, Internal Pressure, and Bottle Seal.- Heat and Protein Instabilities.- Light.- FOAM AND BUBBLES.- Bubbles.- Foam.- CONCLUSION.- REFERENCES.- 8 Fortified Wines: Sherry, Port and Madeira.- Definition and Scope.- Origins and Current Status of Fortified Wines.- Outline of the Basic Processes.- ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION.- FORTIFICATION SPIRIT.- SHERRY.- Definition.- Viticulture.- Climate and Soil.- Vineyards and Grape Varieties.- Vintage.- Vinification.- Pressing.- Fermentation and Fortification.- Styles of Wine.- Aging and Maturation.- Cellars.- The Solera System.- Aging Under Flor.- Maturation without Flor.- Sweetening and Color Wines.- Commercial Styles of Sherry.- Final Processing.- PORT.- Regulation.- Geographical Origin.- Viticulture.- Vintage.- Vinification.- Basic Styles of Wine.- Aging and Maturation.- Blending.- Commercial Styles of Port.- Wood Aged Styles.- Bottle Aged Styles.- Processing.- MADEIRA.- Regulation and Geographical Origin.- Viticulture.- Vintage.- Vinification.- Aging and Maturation.- Blending.- Commercial Styles of Madeira.- Processing.- QUALITY ASPECTS.- Ethyl Carbamate.- Microbial Spoilage.- ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.- REFERENCES.- 9 From Vine to Cognac.- THE GEOLOGY AND THE 'CRU' (GROWTH AREA).- THE VINE VARIETIES.- THE WINEMAKING.- Treatment of the Grapes in the First 5 Minutes.- From the Harvest to the Fermentation Vat.- The Fermentation.- THE CHARENTE DISTILLATION.- THE AGING OF COGNAC.- BLENDING: AN IMPORTANT STEP IN THE PROCESS OF COGNAC PRODUCTION.- The Development of the Chemical Equilibrium During Blending and Reduction.- Production of the Blend.- Notions of Age.- Commercial Denominations.- CONCLUSION.- REFERENCES.- 10 Armagnac and Wine-Spirits.- ARMAGNAC.- Historical Background.- Appellation Areas, Soils, Climate, Vine Stocks.- Vinification.- Distillation and Regulations.- The Continuous Armagnac Still (Figure 10-2).- Two-Stage Pot Stills.- Analysis.- Traditional Analyses.- Gas Chromatography.- High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).- Sensory Analyses.- Analysis of Principal Ions in Armagnac Spirits.- Carbonyl Compounds in Wine Spirits.- Aging and Merchandizing Preparation.- WINE-SPIRITS.- Regulations.- Wine-spirits.- Brandy.- Distillation.- Wine Rectifiers (Manlier, 1925).- Indirect Rectifiers.- Batch Rectification for the Production of Wine-Spirits or Distillates (Figure 10-16).- Composition of Brandies.- Aging and Merchandising Preparation.- ETHYL CARBAMATE IN WINE SPIRITS.- Role of the Distillation Process.- Role of the Vine Cultivar.- Search for a Precursor in the Case of 22 A Baco Wine.- Catalytic Role of Copper.- Role of Light.- Hydrocyanic Acid.- Use of Ion Exchange Resins to Reduce EC Content.- CONCLUSION.- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.- REFERENCES.- 11 Whiskies.- MATERIALS.- MILLING, COOKING, AND MASHING.- Malt Whisky.- Grain Whisky.- FERMENTATION.- DISTILLATION.- Batch Distillation.- Continuous Distillation.- By-Products.- MATURATION.- Current Practice.- Cask Type.- Warehousing.- Sensory Changes During Maturation.- Chemical Changes During Maturation.- Extraction of Wood Components.- Reactions Involving Distillate Components.- Solution Changes That Affect the Release of Aroma-Compounds.- BLENDING.- FILTRATION.- RAW MATERIAL AND PRODUCT ANALYSES.- Sensory Assessment.- Raw Materials.- Cereals.- Yeast.- Water.- Mashing and Fermentation.- Distillation.- Maturation.- REFERENCES.- 12 Rum.- THE HISTORY OF RUM.- THE ORIGIN OF THE WORD 'RUM'.- CANE JUICE PRODUCTION.- MOLASSES.- MOLASSES HANDLING.- CANE JUICE.- DIFFERENT TYPES OF MOLASSES.- YEASTS.- YEAST PROPAGATION.- FERMENTATION.- FERMENTATION EFFICIENCIES.- DISTILLATION.- POT DISTILLED RUM.- HIGH ESTER RUMS.- COLUMN DISTILLATION.- INVENTORY CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT.- THE AGING OF RUM-MATURATION.- THE AROMA AND FLAVOR OF RUM.- EFFLUENT DISPOSAL.- QUALITY.- Quality-Molasses.- Water, Yeast and Fermentation (IOB, Methods of Analysis, 1997).- Quality-Water (IOB, Methods of Analyses, 1997).- Quality-Yeast.- Quality-Yeast.- Quality-Plant Hygiene.- Quality-Distillation.- Quality-Casks.- Quality-Effluent.- Quality-Bottled Rums.- SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION.- REFERENCES.- 13 Vodka, Gin and Other Flavored Spirits.- Vodka.- Gin.- Other Flavored Spirits.- DEFINITIONS AND REGULATIONS.- Neutral Alcohol.- Vodka.- Gin.- Other Flavored Spirits.- BRANDS, MARKETS AND VOLUMES.- Vodka.- Gin.- Other Flavored Spirits.- VODKA, GIN AND FLAVORED SPIRIT PRODUCTION.- Neutral Alcohol.- Vodka.- Gin.- Materials for Gin Production.- Gin Distillation.- Compounded Gin Production.- Flavored Gins.- Other Juniper-Based Drinks.- Other Flavored Spirits.- Packaging and Distribution.- ANALYSIS.- Alcohol.- Water.- Flavor.- Brand Authenticity Analysis.- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.- REFERENCES.- 14 Liqueurs & Speciality Products.- STATISTICS.- Pre-mixed drinks.- LEGAL DEFINITIONS.- COMPOSITION.- CREAM LIQUEURS.- COCKTAILS.- SUMMARY.- REFERENCES.- 15 Cachaca, Pisco and Tequila.- CACHACA: THE BRAZILIAN SUGAR CANE SPIRIT.- Historical Background.- Cachaca Regulations.- Raw Material.- Sugar Cane Juice Extraction.- Must Preparation.- Fermentation.- The Yeast.- The Fermentation Process.- Sugar Cane Wine Composition.- Distillation.- Discontinuous and Semi-Continuous Systems.- Continuous Distillation.- Distillate Composition.- Aging.- Some Aspects Related to Quality of Cachaca.- Sulphur Compounds and the Sensorial Quality of Cachaca.- Inappropriate Handling and Industrial Practices.- Sugar Addition and Legal Regulations.- New Detected Contamination.- Cachaca Production and Market.- Conclusions.- PISCO.- Production Zone.- Vinification in the Pisco Industry.- Distillation.- Distillation Method.- Chemical Composition of Pisco.- Production and Consumption.- TEQUILA.- Materials.- Tequila Elaboration.- Harvesting, Cooking and Mashing.- Fermentation.- Distillation.- Maturation.- Flavor Chemistry.- REFERENCES.- 16 Filtration and Stabilization of Beers.- BACKGROUND TO BEER STABILITY.- THE IMPORTANCE OF OXYGEN.- COLD CONDITIONING.- CONVENTIONAL POWDER FILTRATION.- STABILIZATION WITH PROCESSING AIDS.- Tannic Acid.- Silicas.- Polyvinylpolypyrrolidinone (PVPP).- Nylon.- Bentonite.- Activated Carbon.- Enzymes.- DILUTION OF HIGH-GRAVITY BEERS.- PASTEURIZATION.- Theory.- Equipment and Process Conditions.- Effect Upon Beer Quality.- COLD STERILIZATION OF BEER.- Sheet Filters.- Enzinger Pulp Filters.- Cartridge (Membrane) Filters.- Ceramic Candles.- GAS ADJUSTMENT.- CASK ALES.- BEER RECOVERY.- Centrifuges.- Vacuum Filters.- Filter Presses.- Alcohol Evaporation Systems.- Crossflow Membrane Filtration.- THE FUTURE.- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.- REFERENCES.- 17 Flavor Chemistry.- RAW MATERIALS.- Wine Derives Flavor from Grapes.- Beer, Whisky, and Gin Derive Flavor from Grain.- Flavor Additives: Hops in Beer.- Raw Materials in the Flavor of Gin, Vodka, and Whisky.- Other Raw Materials: Fruits in Wine and Brandies.- FERMENTATION.- Yeast Strain.- Temperature.- Oxygen Effect.- Barrel Fermentation.- Malo-lactic Fermentation.- Lees Contact (sur lies).- Sulfur Compounds.- DISTILLATION.- Thermally Induced Chemical Reactions.- Still Type.- CONTRIBUTION OF AGING TO FLAVOR.- Reactions During Aging.- Oxidation.- Esterification and Hydrolysis.- Evaporation.- Effects of Oak Aging.- Compounds Extracted from Oak.- French versus American Oak.- New versus Used Barrels.- Cooperage Techniques.- CONCLUSION.- REFERENCES.


SKU BK-9780306477065
Barcode # 9780306477065
Brand Springer
Artist / Author John Piggott Andrew G. H. Lea
Shipping Weight 0.9500kg
Shipping Width 17.800m
Shipping Height 2.300m
Shipping Length 25.200m

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